More frequent are the biological, sexual, cultural, internalized, spatial, institutional, colorism, xenophobia, age and aversive racism.
Unfortunately, nowadays we are tired of seeing in the media violent cases of racism, prejudice and social stereotypes towards different groups, whether foreign, gay, disabled or any other condition that is different from that of oneself.
Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to find dramatic news where people are assaulted for their physical condition or because they belong to a sexual group that is different from what is set by the norm, something that is growing in our society, where more and more homosexuals As transsexuals who suffer the consequences of discrimination.
Even in football matches, we see how violence to defend the team above all else, can even go as far as death.
What is racism?
Racism is an act of discrimination that is carried out by a person or a group for racial or ethnic reasons, where certain individuals consider themselves superior and reject anyone who is not in their group.
It includes the belief that genetic or hereditary differences produce an inherent superiority or inferiority from one ethical group to another. The characteristics of racism are, therefore:
- It is directed against an individual or group in a less privileged position.
- It refers not only to social attitudes towards a particular group, race or ethnicity but also to social structures and actions that oppress, exclude or discriminate against such individuals or groups.
- Racism can also be seen in discriminatory laws, such as residential segregation, inequality of opportunities in economic, educational or health.
1. Biological racism
Biological racism is based on the belief that biological inheritance transmits superior physical and intellectual characteristics. It would, therefore, be accepted that there are races whose intellectual or physical ability is above other races.
2. Sexual racism
Sexual racism consists in rejecting a person or group of people of a particular genre. Sometimes this type can arise if the person has suffered some kind of physical or psychological damage.
In general, usually occurs in women especially if they have been strongly injured or humiliated by a man.
3. Cultural Racism
Cultural racism consists in believing in a historical-cultural superiority of one race over another.
4. By skin color
This type is the most common, where one person or group rejects others for their skin color. A classic example we would have in racism between white and black.
5. Racism for disability
It would discriminate against all those people who have some type of physical or psychological disability, so that they are denied access to housing and employment, even keeping them in poverty.
6. Racism for the difference of religion
It occurs mainly in countries of the Middle East, where some citizens can be discriminated against or mistreated just because they belong to a different religion.
7. Racism for social class
Also known as aporophobia, which is the rejection or discrimination of those groups with less economic resources. Those who have a higher economic status see those of a lower class as thieves, murderers, drug addicts.
8. Racism for sexual inclination
This type can lead to such brutal behavior as ending the life of anyone with a sexual preference toward the same sex, also known as Homophobia.
9. Internalized Racism
In this type, people who are colored internalize the negative messages they have captured and come to feel ashamed of themselves for being “different“.
They even hate their skin color, hair or other physical characteristics. This leads them to develop a low self-esteem And does not feel comfortable with yourself because you believe that your race makes you inferior.
10. Space racism L
It refers to the patterns of metropolitan development in which some white and economically wealthy people create racially and economically segregated areas within cities, leaving newly arrived immigrants in very deteriorated areas of the city.
11. Institutional Racism
Institutional racism refers to institutional and cultural practices that affect racial inequality. The benefits would be structured advantageously for the power groups. Examples of this racism are the laws of Jim Crow And Redlining.
12. Racism in reverse
It is about directing racist behavior toward those people who are not accustomed to racism. As for example towards the white race, since we are accustomed to listening to jokes, series or TV programs where focuses on the black people.
13. Subtle racism
Those who are victims of subtle racism may feel discriminated against or rejected by waiters, shopkeepers, etc.
Surely it has happened to you that according to the clothes you were wearing or not the clerk. It seems that they have a radar to detect those people who do not go to the latest fashion or do not wear marks on it.
It is often seen as a problem for those communities of color. It’s kind of like discriminating against others because your skin is darker than yours (What’s called curling the curl even more).
For years in the black community, the clearest skin was always seen as superior to the darkest. Not only does colorism occur in the black community, but also in countries like Asia, where skin whitening products are sold very easily.
It is the rejection, fear or hatred towards the foreigner. This consists in the rejection of one’s own cultural identity, so that in xenophobia if it is proposed to accept foreigners as long as they comply with the sociocultural assimilation of the country in which they live.
In this way, the xenophobic justify the segregation and discrimination that he does only because he does not lose his own identity.
Within xenophobia, we can include Islamophobia which is fear or a sense of hostility towards Islamic culture.
More and more people are declaring themselves Islamophobic because of the events that are occurring today, such as the latest attacks in France.
Also, the government and the media are responsible for generating a global fear of the whole society.
16. Ageism (Discrimination by age)
Ageism in Spanish comes to mean age discrimination.
Who has not heard that old people are slow, clumsy, have memory losses… without thinking about the consequences that this entails.
Already in several studies, it was shown that those who lived under those labels felt and acted as they were told so that their quality of life was affected.
Most older people are physically and mentally active regardless of age, yet social norms marginalize these people. A clear example is a retirement.
17. Unknowing / Unintentional Racism
Unintentional racism can be as destructive as intentional racism.
Example of this type we have everywhere, one of them would be to put an image of a black boy in a chocolate pot and an image of a white boy in a white bottle of white.
Another example would be to believe that all Chinese have equal eyes when it is not true.
18. Aversive racism
According to the theory proposed by Samuel L. Gaertner and John F. Dovidio in 1986, there is a type of racism that consists in avoiding certain interactions with other ethnic groups by the negative evaluations that we have about them in our mind.
Aversive racism is characterized by expressions and attitudes that categorize as “friend” or “enemy” to other individuals depending on whether we consider ourselves part of the group to which we belong.
In a study carried out by David Amodio And Patricia Devine in 2006, a group of subjects was asked if one of the words they were showing had any positive or negative value, at the same time that they were shown some white or black faces.
The result was that when the faces were black, the participants assigned a negative word much faster than when the faces were white.
According to Plous (2003), racism has never ceased to exist, it has only been transformed as society evolves. The main change is in the form of expression, as in the denominations that have been given to them “modern”, “symbolic”, “aversive” and “subtle racism”.
*This article was originally published at www.lifepersona.com By Oscar Chavez.