Manjushri is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means “Gentle Glory” in Sanskrit. Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta, literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī“. Another deity name of Mañjuśrī is Manjughosha.
In Mahāyāna Buddhism
Scholars have identified Manjushri as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature.
Manjushri is first referred to in early Mahayana sutras such as the Prajnaparamita sutras and through this association, very early in the tradition, he came to symbolize the embodiment of prajñā (transcendent wisdom).
The Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure land called Vimala, which according to the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East. His pure land is predicted to be one of the two best pure lands in all of existence in all the past, present, and future. When he attains buddhahood his name will be Universal Sight.
In the Lotus Sūtra, Manjushri also leads the Nagaraja’s daughter to enlightenment. He also figures in the Vimalakirti Sutra in a debate with Vimalakirti where he is presented as an Arhat who represents the wisdom of the Hinayana.
An example of a wisdom teaching of Mañjuśrī can be found in the Saptaśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (Taishō Tripiṭaka 232).
This sūtra contains a dialogue between Mañjuśrī and the Buddha on the One Samadhi (Skt. Ekavyūha Samādhi). Sheng-yen renders the following teaching of Mañjuśrī, for entering samādhi naturally through transcendent wisdom:
Contemplate the five skandhas as originally empty and quiescent, non-arising, non-perishing, equal, without differentiation.
Constantly thus practicing, day or night, whether sitting, walking, standing or lying down, finally one reaches an inconceivable state without any obstruction or form. This is the Samadhi of One Act.
Within Vajrayana Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is a meditational deity and considered a fully enlightened Buddha. In Shingon Buddhism, he is one of the Thirteen Buddhas to whom disciples devote themselves.
He figures extensively in many esoteric texts such as the Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa and the Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti. His consort in some traditions is Saraswati.
The Mañjusrimulakalpa, which later came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva, Garuda and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by Manjushri.
In Buddhist cultures
Manjushri is known in China as Wenshu. Mount Wutai in Shanxi, one of the Four Sacred Mountains of China, is considered by Chinese Buddhists to be his bodhimaṇḍa.
He was said to bestow spectacular visionary experiences to those on selected mountain peaks and caves there. In Mount Wutai’s Foguang Temple, the Manjusri Hall to the right of its main hall was recognized to have been built in 1137 during the Jin dynasty.
The hall was thoroughly studied, mapped and first photographed by early twentieth-century Chinese architects Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin. These made it a popular place of pilgrimage, but patriarchs including Linji Yixuan and Yunmen Wenyan declared the mountain off-limits.
Mount Wutai was also associated with the East Mountain Teaching. Manjushri has been associated with Mount Wutai since ancient times. Paul Williams writes:
Apparently the association of Mañjuśrī with Wutai (Wu-t’ai) Shan in north China was known in classical times in India itself, identified by Chinese scholars with the mountain in the ‘north-east’ (when seen from India or Central Asia) referred to as the abode of Mañjuśrī in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra. There are said to have been pilgrimages from India and other Asian countries to Wutai Shan by the seventh century.
According to official histories from the Qing dynasty, Nurhaci, a military leader of the Jurchens of Northeast China and founder of what became the Qing dynasty, named his tribe after Mañjuśrī as the Manchus. The true origin of the name Manchu is disputed.
Monk Hanshan is widely considered to be a metaphorical manifestation of Mañjuśrī. He is known for having co-written the following famous poem about reincarnation with monk Shide:
Drumming your grandpa in the shrine,
Cooking your aunts in the pot,
Marrying your grandma in the past,
Should I laugh or not?
In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī manifests in a number of different Tantric forms. Yamāntaka (meaning ‘terminator of Yama i.e. Death’) is the wrathful manifestation of Mañjuśrī, popular within the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Other variations upon his traditional form as Mañjuśrī include Namasangiti, Arapacana Manjushri, etc.
According to Swayambhu Purana, the Kathmandu Valley was once a lake. It is believed that Manjushri came on a pilgrimage from his earthly abode-Wutaishan(five-peaked mountain) in China.
He saw a lotus flower in the center of the lake, which emitted brilliant radiance. He cut a gorge at Chovar with his flaming sword to allow the lake to drain. The place where the lotus flower settled became the great Swayambhunath Stupa and the valley thus became habitable.
In eighth-century Java during the Medang Kingdom, Manjushri was a prominent deity revered by the Sailendra dynasty, patrons of Mahayana Buddhism.
The Kelurak inscription and Manjusrigrha inscription mentioned about the construction of a grand Prasada named Vajrāsana Mañjuśrīgṛha (Vajra House of Mañjuśrī) identified today as Sewu temple, located just 800 meters north of the Prambanan. Sewu is the second largest Buddhist temple in Central Java after Borobudur.
The depiction of Mañjuśrī in Sailendra art is similar to those of the Pala Empire style of Nalanda, Bihar. Mañjuśrī was portrayed as a youthful handsome man with the palm of his hands tattooed with the image of a flower.
His right hand is facing down with an open palm while his left-hand holds an utpala (blue lotus). He also uses the necklace made of tiger canine teeth.
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