Neidan, or internal alchemy, is an array of esoteric doctrines and physical, mental, and spiritual practices that Taoist initiates use to prolong life and create an immortal spiritual body that would survive after death .
Neidan also known as Jindan (“golden elixir”), inner alchemy combines theories derived from external alchemy (waidan), correlative cosmology (including the Five Phases), the emblems of the Yijing, and medical theory, with techniques of Daoist meditation, daoyin gymnastics, and sexual hygiene (Baldrian-Hussein 2008, 762).
In Neidan the human body becomes a cauldron (or “ding”) in which the Three Treasures of Jing (“Essence”), Qi (“Breath”) and Shen (“Spirit”) are cultivated for the purpose of improving physical, emotional and mental health, and ultimately returning to the primordial unity of the Tao, i.e., becoming an Immortal.
It is believed the Xiuzhen Tu is such a cultivation map. In China, it is an important form of practice for most schools of Taoism.
The Chinese compound neidan combines the common word nèi meaning “inside; inner; internal” with dān “cinnabar; vermillion; elixir; alchemy“.
The antonym of nèi is wài “outside; exterior; external“, and nèidān “internal elixir / alchemy” was coined from the earlier complementary term wàidān “external elixir / alchemy”.
Chinese alchemical texts and sources ordinarily call neidan the jīndān dào or Way of the Golden Elixir. In Modern Standard Chinese usage, the term nèidān shù (with “art; skill; technique; method”) refers generally to internal alchemical practices.
The date for the earliest use of the term neidan is uncertain. Arthur Waley proposed that it was first recorded in the 559 vow taken by Tiantai Buddhist patriarch Nanyue Huisi praying to successfully make an elixir that would keep him alive till the coming of Maitreya (1930: 14). Many scholars agreed, including Joseph Needham and Lu Gwei-djen who translated Huisi’s vow to live as an ascetic in the mountains:
I am seeking for the longevity in order to defend the Faith, not in order to enjoy worldly happiness. I pray that all the saints and sages will come to my help, so that I may get some good magic mushrooms, and numinous elixirs, enabling me to cure all illnesses and to stop both hunger and thirst. In this way I shall be able to practice continually the way of the Sutras and to engage in the several forms of meditations. I shall hope to find a peaceful dwelling in the depths of the mountains, with enough numinous elixirs and medicine to carry out my plans. Thus by the aids of external elixirs [waidan] I shall be able to cultivate the elixir within [neidan]. (1983: 140)
Others believed that neidan first occurred in the biographies of Deng Yuzhi and Su Yuanming. However, the authenticity of the relevant passages in these “pseudo-historical sources” is doubtful (Baldrian-Hussein 1989: 164–171).
The term neidan was seldom used throughout the late Tang dynasty (618–907) and Five dynasties (907–960) period, and only became widespread around the beginning of the Song dynasty (960–1279) period, when neidan evolved into a highly complex system in both its theoretical and practical aspects.
It is sometimes incorrectly called Neitan in literature on western Alchemy.
History and development;
Neidan is part of the Chinese alchemical meditative tradition that is said to have been separated into internal and external at some point during the Tang dynasty. The Cantong qi (The Kinship of the Three) is the earliest known book on theoretical alchemy in China; it was written by the alchemist Wei Boyang in 142 AD.
This text influenced the formation of Neidan, whose earliest existing texts date from the first half of the 8th century. The authors of several Neidan articles refer to their teachings as the Way of the Golden Elixir (jindan zhi dao). The majority of Chinese alchemical sources is found in the Daozang (Taoist Canon), the largest collection of Taoist texts.
Neidan shares a significant portion of its notions and methods with classical Chinese medicine, fangshi and with other bodies of practices, such as meditation and the methods for “nourishing life” (yangsheng). What distinguishes alchemy from these related traditions is its unique view of the elixir as a material or immaterial entity that represents the original state of being and the attainment of that state.
The Neidan tradition of internal alchemy is practiced by working with the energies that were already present in the human body as opposed to using natural substances, medicines or elixirs, from outside of the body.
The Shangqing School of Daoism played an important role in the emergence of Neidan alchemy, after using Waidan mainly as a meditative practice, and therefore turning it from an external to an internal art.
The Three Treasures
Internal alchemy focuses upon transforming the bodily sanbao “three treasures“, which are the essential energies sustaining human life:
- Jing “nutritive essence, essence; refined, perfected; extract; spirit, demon; sperm, seed”
- Qi “vitality, energy, force; air, vapor; breath; spirit, vigor; attitude”
- Shen”spirit; soul, mind; god, deity; supernatural being”
According to the 13th-century Book of Balance and Harmony:
Making one’s essence complete, one can preserve the body. To do so, first keep the body at ease, and make sure there are no desires. Thereby energy can be made complete.
Making one’s energy complete, one can nurture the mind. To do so, first keep the mind pure, and make sure there are no thoughts. Thereby spirit can be made complete.
Making one’s spirit complete, one can recover emptiness. To do so, first keep the will sincere, and make sure body and mind are united. Thereby spirit can be returned to emptiness. … To attain immortality, there is nothing else but the refinement of these three treasures: essence, energy, spirit.” (tr. Kohn 1956, 146).
When the “three treasures” are internally maintained, along with a balance of yin and yang, it is possible to achieve a healthy body and longevity, which are the main goals of internal alchemy.
Jing “essence” referring to the energies of the physical body. Based upon the idea that death was caused by depleting one’s jing, Daoist internal alchemy claimed that preserving jing allowed one to achieve longevity, if not immortality. (Schipper 1993, 154).
Qi or ch’i is defined as the “natural energy of the universe” and manifests in everyone and everything. By means of internal alchemy, Taoists strive to obtain a positive flow of qi through the body in paths moving to each individual organ.
Healing practices such as acupuncture, massage, cupping and herbal medicines are believed to open up the qi meridians throughout the body so that the qi can flow freely. Keeping qi in balance and flowing throughout the body promotes health; imbalance can lead to sickness.
Shen is the original spirit of the body. Taoists try to become conscious of shen through meditation.