Vastu Shastra (vāstu śāstra) is a traditional Hindu system of architecture which literally translates to “science of architecture.“
These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement, and spatial geometry. Vastu Shastras incorporate traditional Hindu and in some cases Buddhist beliefs.
The designs are intended to integrate architecture with nature, the relative functions of various parts of the structure, and ancient beliefs utilizing geometric patterns (yantra), symmetry, and directional alignments.
Vastu Shastra is the textual part of Vastu Vidya, the latter being the broader knowledge about architecture and design theories from ancient India.
Vastu Vidya knowledge is a collection of ideas and concepts, with or without the support of layout diagrams, that are not rigid.
Rather, these ideas and concepts are models for the organization of space and form within a building or collection of buildings, based on their functions in relation to each other, their usage and to the overall fabric of the Vastu.
Ancient Vastu Shastra principles include those for the design of Mandir (Hindu temples), and the principles for the design and layout of houses, towns, cities, gardens, roads, waterworks, shops and other public areas.
Proposals tracing potential links of the principles of composition in Vastu Shastra and the Indus Valley Civilization have been made, but Kapila Vatsyayan is reluctant to speculate on such links given the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered.
According to Chakrabarti, Vastu Vidya is as old the Vedic period and linked to the ritual architecture. According to Michael W. Meister, the Atharvaveda contains verses with mystic cosmogony which provide a paradigm for cosmic planning, but they did not represent architecture nor a developed practice.
Varahamihira’s Brihat Samhita dated to the sixth century CE, states Meister, is the first known Indian text that describes “something like a vastupurusamandala to plan cities and buildings“.
The emergence of Vastu Vidya as a specialized field of science is speculated to have occurred significantly before the 1st-century CE.
Modern adaptations and usage
Vastu Shastra represents a body of ancient concepts and knowledge to many modern architects, a guideline but not a rigid code.
The square-grid mandala is viewed as a model of organization, not as a ground plan. The ancient Vastu sastra texts describe functional relations and adaptable alternate layouts for various rooms or buildings and utilities but do not mandate a set compulsory architecture.
Sachdev and Tillotson state that the mandala is a guideline, and employing the mandala concept of Vastu sastra does not mean every room or building has to be square.
The basic theme is around core elements of central space, peripheral zones, direction with respect to sunlight, and relative functions of the spaces.
The pink city Jaipur in Rajasthan was master planned by Rajput king Jai Singh and built by 1727 CE, in part around Vastu Shilpa Sastra principles.
Similarly, modern era projects such as the architect Charles Correa’s designed Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya in Ahmedabad, Vidhan Bhavan in Bhopal, and Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur, adapt and apply concepts from the Vastu Shastra Vidya.
In the design of Chandigarh city, Le Corbusier incorporated modern architecture theories with those of Vastu Shastra.
During the colonial rule period of India, town planning officials of the British Raj did not consider Vastu Vidya, but largely grafted Islamic Mughal era motifs and designs such as domes and arches onto Victorian-era style buildings without overall relationship layout.
This movement, later known as the Indo-Saracenic style, is found in chaotically laid out, but externally grand structures in the form of currently used major railway stations, harbors, tax collection buildings, and other colonial offices in South Asia.
Vastu Sastra vidya was ignored, during colonial era construction, for several reasons. These texts were viewed by 19th and early 20th century architects as archaic, the literature was inaccessible being in an ancient language not spoken or read by the architects, and the ancient texts assumed space to be readily available.
In contrast, public projects in the colonial era were forced into crowded spaces and local layout constraints, and the ancient Vastu Sastra were viewed with prejudice as superstitious and rigid about a square grid or traditional materials of construction.
Sachdev and Tillotson state that these prejudices were flawed, as a scholarly and complete reading of the Vastu Sastra literature amply suggests the architect is free to adapt the ideas to new materials of construction, local layout constraints and into a non-square space.
The design and completion of a new city of Jaipur in the early 1700s based on Vastu Sastra texts, well before any colonial era public projects, was one of many proofs.
Other examples include modern public projects designed by Charles Correa such as Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur and Gandhi Ashram in Ahmedabad.
Vastu Shastra remedies have also been applied by Khushdeep Bansal in 1997 to the Parliament complex of India when he contended that the library being built next to the building is responsible for political instability in the country.
German architect Klaus-Peter Gast states that the principles of Vastu Shastras is witnessing a major revival and wide usage in the planning and design of individual homes, residential complexes, commercial and industrial campuses, and major public projects in India, along with the use of ancient iconography and mythological art work incorporated into the Vastu vidya architectures.
Vastu and superstition
The use of Vastu Shastra and Vastu consultants in modern home and public projects is controversial. Some architects, particularly during India’s colonial era, considered it arcane and superstitious.
Other architects state that critics have not read the texts and that most of the text is about flexible design guidelines for space, sunlight, flow, and function.
Vastu Shastra is considered as pseudoscience by rationalists like Narendra Nayak of Federation of Indian Rationalist Associations.
Scientist and astronomer Jayant Narlikar considers Vastu Shastra as pseudoscience and writes that Vastu does not have any “logical connection” to the environment.
One of the examples cited by Narlikar arguing the absence of logical connection is the Vastu rule, “sites shaped like a triangle … will lead to government harassment, … a parallelogram can lead to quarrels in the family.”
Narlikar notes that sometimes the building plans are changed and what has already been built is demolished to accommodate for Vastu rules. Regarding superstitious beliefs, in Vastu, Science writer Meera Nanda cites the case of N. T. Rama Rao, the ex-chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, who sought the help of Vastu consultants for his political problems.
Rama Rao was advised that his problems would be solved if he entered his office from an east facing gate. Accordingly, a slum on the east facing side of his office was ordered to be demolished, to make way for his car’s entrance.
The knowledge of Vastu consultants is questioned by Pramod Kumar:
“Ask the Vaastu folks if they know civil engineering or architecture or the local government rules on construction or minimum standards of construction to advise people on buildings. They will get into a barrage of “ancient” texts and “science” that smack of the pseudo-science of astrology. Ask them where they were before the construction boom and if they will go to slum tenements to advise people or advise on low-cost community-housing—you draw a blank.”
Mandala types and properties
The central area in all mandala is the Brahmasthana. Mandala “circle-circumference” or “completion“, is a concentric diagram having spiritual and ritual significance in both Hinduism and Buddhism.
The space occupied by it varies in different mandala – in Pitha (9) and Upapitha (25) it occupies one square module, in Mahaapitha (16), Ugrapitha (36) and Manduka (64), four square modules and in Sthandila (49) and Paramasaayika (81), nine square modules.
The Pitha is an amplified Prithvimandala in which, according to some texts, the central space is occupied by the earth. The Sthandila mandala is used in a concentric manner.
The most important mandala is the Manduka/ Chandita Mandala of 64 squares and the Paramasaayika Mandala of 81 squares.
The normal position of the Vastu Purusha (head in the northeast, legs in the southwest) is as depicted in the Paramasaayika Mandala. However, in the Manduka Mandala, the Vastu Purusha is depicted with the head facing east and the feet facing west.
It is believed that every piece of land or a building has a soul of its own and that soul is known as Vastu Purusha.
A site of any shape can be divided using the Pada Vinyasa. Sites are known by the number of squares. They range from 1×1 to 32×32 (1024) square sites. Examples of mandalas with the corresponding names of sites include:
- Sakala (1 square) corresponds to Eka-pada (single divided site)
- Pechaka (4 squares) corresponds to Dwi-pada (two divided site)
- Pitha (9 squares) corresponds to Tri-pada (three divided site)
- Mahaapitha (16 squares) corresponds to Chatush-pada (four divided site)
- Upapitha (25 squares) corresponds to Pancha-pada (five divided site)
- Ugrapitha (36 squares) corresponds to Shashtha-pada (six divided site)
- Sthandila (49 squares) corresponds to Sapta-pada (seven divided site)
- Manduka/ Chandita (64 square) corresponds to Ashta-pada (eight divided site)
- Paramasaayika (81 squares) corresponds to Nava-pada (nine divided site)
- Aasana (100 squares) corresponds to Dasa-pada (ten divided site)
- Bhadrmahasan (196 squares) corresponds to Chodah-pada (14 divided sites)
*This article was originally published at en.wikipedia.org.